History of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is a country of an ancient civilization. There are thousands of monuments of archaeology and architecture preserved on its territory. Numerous manuscripts and items of both ancient and recent past of the area are kept in research centers and museums, In recent years, significant changes have been observed with regard to the true historical past of the area, spiritual values and traditions of the people that inhabited the region. Thus, a deep and objective study of the history of the peoples of Uzbekistan, based on first-hand sources, now has been launched in the country. National festivals and rituals have been revived, freedom of faith is fully maintained, and the national self-conscience and dignity of the peoples now residing in Uzbekistan have been recovered.
The celebration of remarkable dates is significant vis-a-vis restoring the national self-consciousness and historical culture of the area. The 2500th anniversary of the world-famous cities of Bukhara and Khiva, 660th anniversary of the great statesman, Amir Temur (Tamerlane), the jubilees of the greatest scientists such as Akhmad Al-Farghony, ImamAl-Bukhary, Bakhauddin Naksbbandy, Ulugbbek, Navoi, and many others were celebrated nationwide. All of these festivals were launched under the auspices of UNESCO, and have received wide international response. Besides, each celebration served as vivid evidence of the enormous contribution our ancestors had made with their treasury of global culture.
The climatic conditions and favorable ecological environment of the Central Asian region served important prerequisites for emerging here of initial dwellings of ancient humans and development of
Mawarannahr was one of the most advanced caliphate regions playing a significant role in social and cultural life. The Great Silk Road linked the West with the Orient and people from southern and northern countries passed through this land. The Mawarannahr towns of Bukhara, Samarkand and Kunya-Urgench were the crossroads of caravan routes from India, China, Egypt, Byzantium, Slavic countries and Arabia.
It was the right time to bring in the ripe harvest of such bright philosophers as Abu Nasr Farabi, Imam Al-Bukhari, Narshaki, Makhmud Kashghari, Marginani, Nadjimmiddin Kubro, Abu Raikhan Beruni, Abu Ali Ibn Sino, az-Zamakhshari, and outstanding poets like Rudaki, Yusuf khas Khadjib, Akhmad Yassavi and Abu Bakr al-Khorezmi. At the same time new Islamic religious movements appeared known for their free thinking, known as Mutaziliya, Ismailiya and Sufism. The towns of Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv, Urgench and Khiva became widely popular in Muslim countries.
Stone Age - The Zoroastrians and Persians - Stone Age, Avesta - the code of holy hymns of the Zoroastrians lands which were inhabited by the Sogdians, Bactrians and others. Fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries BC, the greatest part of the Central Asian lands was under the power of the Persian dynasty of the Akhemenids. Alexander The Great - Third and fourth centuries BC, Central Asia was conquered by the Macedonians. The conquest by Alexander the Great had a great effect on the economic and cultural development of the peoples of the East, West and Central Asia. The Arab invasion - Seventh and eighth centuries, Central Asia was conquered by the Arab Khalifat. The Arabs took over these lands with the mission of spreading the new religion of Islam. Genghis Khan and Tamerlane - In the middle of the 14th century, with the help of the famous warlord Tamerlane, the local people were freed from the Mongols. Tamerlane began his successful campaigns to Iraq, India, Turkey, and North Africa, which led to the establishment of one of the most powerful medieval empires, with Samarkand as the capital. The restoration and development of the cities (Samarkand and Shakhrisabz, Tamerlane's native town in particular) revived commerce, handicrafts, science and the arts. Russian Empire - In 19th century the Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanates were annexed by the Russian Empire. The Russian Revolution - The year 1917 changed the political situation in the Russian Empire and in 1924 Uzbekistan became one of the republics of the USSR. Uzbekistan later announced its independence from Russia, and September 1, 1991 was proclaimed as its Independence Day.